Rohingya and other survivors of dangerous boat voyages from Burma and Bangladesh describe horrific treatment by unscrupulous smugglers and traffickers in Burma, and abuse and neglect aboard ships, Human Rights Watch (HRW) said today.
The international group also called for the regional meeting scheduled 29 May 2015 in Bangkok to find solutions to the emerging crisis.
Rohingya have explained to Human Rights Watch how they endured two months at sea, packed below decks in cramped conditions with limited food and water and very poor sanitation.
Boats carrying approximately 100 mostly Rohingya men and women each abandoned passengers at an undisclosed location along Thailand’s coast, leaving them to fend for themselves until they were found by the Thai authorities.
According to international agencies, 3,000 to 4,000 people may still be aboard ships at sea.
“Survivors describe how they flee persecution in Burma only to fall into the hands of traffickers and extortionists, in many cases witnessing deaths and suffering abuse and hunger,” said Brad Adams, Asia director at HRW. “Interviews with officials and others make clear that these brutal networks, with the complicity of government officials in Burma, Bangladesh, Thailand, and Malaysia, profit from the desperation and misery of some of the world’s most persecuted and neglected people.”
HRW also called for regional states and other governments to make commitments to redouble search-and-rescue efforts and ensure that thousands of Rohingya and Bangladeshi asylum seekers and migrants have full access to procedures for seeking international protection and humanitarian assistance.
“Burma and Bangladesh need to stop persecuting Rohingya, while Thailand and Malaysia urgently need to shut down camps where boat people are held to end abuses and ensure that no more mass graves are created on their soil,” Mr Adams said.
In recent weeks, boats carrying thousands of Rohingya asylum seekers and migrants from Myanmar and Bangladesh have arrived in Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia.
The three governments responded by pushing the boats back out to sea, leading to domestic and international condemnation and forcing them to reconsider these policies.
Following a meeting in Kuala Lumpur on 21 May, Malaysia and Indonesia agreed to permit boats to land, on condition that the international community provide humanitarian assistance and help resettle or repatriate all the passengers within one year.
Rohingya in Myanmar suffer from limited access to education, employment, and the freedom to travel or observe their own religion, which are cited as the common reasons for them fleeing their country.
However, Rohingya also told HRW that in some cases, smugglers lured and duped people to make the sea journey without disclosing what was involved, and sometimes handed them over to traffickers.
Crisis at sea, crisis on land
The current crisis was in part sparked after the discovery of mass graves of people suspected to be Rohingya and Bangladeshi.
On 25 May, Malaysian government authorities announced they had discovered as many as 139 graves in a series of 28 camps on the Malaysian side of the border. This followed the discovery of mass graves in Thailand in May.
“Thailand and Malaysia need to act immediately to close any remaining camps of victims and offer aid and protection to any survivors found,” said HRW.
Rohingya and Bangladeshis described to HRW how they have been held in camps in Thailand and Malaysia until they could pay a ransom. They were beaten and abused if they could not pay.
The Thai authorities subsequently began a crackdown on transit camps on 1 May.
HRW called for the leaders of Burma, Bangladesh, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia to show greater recognition of and respect for the rights of the Rohingyas and Bangladeshis on these boats.
“The United Nations refugee agency, UNHCR, and other international agencies should be permitted access to survivors of boat voyages to assess their claims for protection in accordance with international standards and to help identify people who are fleeing persecution, those who were trafficked, and those who are migrating for economic reasons,” said HRW. “Burma and Bangladesh should hold to account anyone found to be abusing Rohingya and others by coercing them or deliberately deceiving them to embark onto boats, where they are held in atrocious conditions.”
“Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia need to agree to never again engage in pushbacks of people stuck at sea, find any remaining boats, bring the people on board to safe ports, and ensure that their rights are respected,” Mr Adams said. “Just as important, there will be no long-term solution unless Burma ends its rights-abusing and discriminatory policies toward the Rohingya and joins other countries in taking action against smugglers and traffickers who abuse and prey on them.”
Accounts of boat refugees on their ordeal given to HRW
“They dragged me to the boat, they had sticks, and threatened to beat me. I screamed, I cried loudly. My parents were weeping, but they couldn’t do anything.” – 13-year-old Rohingya girl
“There was a group of six men, they were Rakhine Buddhists from Bangladesh, they had knives and guns. They forced me to get on a boat, they told me I was leaving Myanmar. They pushed me to the small boat, I fell into the water up to my shoulders. Fifteen other Rohingya were on that boat. All the people were forced onto the boat.” – 16-year-old Rohingya girl
“I was on the way to my father-in-law’s house with my husband when a broker and many men took us. They forced us onto the big boat. On the boat I couldn’t understand (the traffickers’) language, I cannot speak Burmese or Rakhine, I don’t know who they are.” – Rohingya girl
“We spent two months on that boat, more people kept coming to the big boat, small boats all the time. We [the women] were under the boat, it was so small. I couldn’t see outside the boat, just feel it go up and down. People were throwing up, I felt dizzy and uncomfortable the whole time.” – Rohingya girl
“When I got to the big boat … I cannot explain my feeling I was so scared. We were about 16 people in one small room. The doors were always locked. The smugglers put the food and water through a small hole, we never saw them.” – Rohingya girl